Notes to Laugesen


(1) Typified by the work of Patricia Limerick in The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken past of the American West, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1987.

(2) See, for example, M. Halbwachs, On Collective Memory, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992 edn; D. Middleton and D. Edwards (eds) Collective Remembering, SAGE Publications, London, 1990; J. Fentress and C. Wickham, Social Memory, Blackwells, Oxford, 1992; M. Bourget, L. Valenti and N. Wachtel, Between Memory and History, Harwood Academic Publishers, London, 1990; D. Thelen (ed) Memory and American History, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1989.

(3) Middleton and Edwards, Collective Remembering, p. 90.

(4) For a selection of recent international scholarship on environmental history, see T. Griffiths and L. Robin (eds) Ecology and Empire: Environmental History of Settler Societies, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1997. Works on cultural geography can also be useful, see for example, J. Duncan and D. Ley, Place/Culture/Representation, Routledge, London, 1993; A. Baker and G. Biber, Ideology and Landscape in Historical Perspective: Essays on the Meanings of Some Places in the Past, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992; M. Keith and S. Pile, Place and the Politics of Identity, Routledge, New York, 1993; E. Soja, Postmodern Geographies, Verso, London, 1989.

(5) Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association, 1877, p. 36. The pioneer mythology and the other aspects of the way settlement was thought about can be found in the Transactions of the Pioneer Association, published annually from 1875 to the 1920s. The many speeches found in these transactions often reiterate the same points.

(6) The account of the Columbia River Centennial can be found in the Transactions of the Pioneer Association for 1892, p. 22.